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Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Oct 1;31(21):2516-20.

Radiation exposure during pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: is fluoroscopy safe?

Ul Haque M1, Shufflebarger HL, O'Brien M, Macagno A.


With institutional review board approval, prospective data were collected during fluoroscopically guided pedicle screw placement.


To estimate a surgeon's radiation exposure with all screw constructs during surgery to repair idiopathic scoliosis.


To our knowledge, there is no established consensus regarding the safety of radiation exposure during fluoroscopically guided procedures.


A surgeon was outfitted intraoperatively with a thermoluminescent dosimeter to estimate radiation exposure to his whole body and thyroid gland.


The index surgeon is projected to receive 13.49 mSv of whole body ionizing radiation and 4.31 mSv of thyroid gland irradiation annually. The National Council on Radiation Protection's current recommendations set lifetime dose equivalent limits for classified workers (radiologists) at 10 mSv per year of life and at 3 mSv for nonclassified workers (spinal surgeons). At the levels estimated, a surgeon beginning his/her career at age 30 years would exceed the lifetime limit for nonclassified workers in less than 10 years. The National Council on Radiation Protection limits the single-year maximum safe dosage to the thyroid to 500 mSv; the yearly exposure estimated here is significantly less.


The spinal surgeon's intraoperative radiation exposure may be unacceptable. Spinal surgeons should be considered classified workers and monitored accordingly. Methods to lower radiation dosage seem strongly indicated.

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